In addition,tons of CBO 5, tons of CCO-Mn,tons of ammonia and 4, tons of phenols are spilled in the natural waterways. Of the 70,km total length of rivers, 20,km are so contaminated by toxic substances as to be considered unfit for agricultural or human use.
Over 2,km are devoid of all plant and animal life. Romania Biodiversity Assessment 13 Water used for irrigation of ,ha of agricultural land falls short of prescribed quality conditions. The four water quality categories are based upon is a measurements of carbon and oxygen concentration as well as microbial colonies Figure 1B. The degradation is due mainly to the discharge of insufficiently treated or untreated effluent oil and petroleum residues and eutrophication from agricultural fertilizers.
Beforeout of existing towns, only 56 had a sewage treatment system and only eight possessed a purification station. The problem is much more serious with regard to purification stations for industrial effluents: of 3, known polluting industrial units, over half do not have purification stations or do not have sufficient capacity for the filtration of the effluent.
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In grasslands there has been a continuous deterioration due to the number of grazing animals without a consideration of carrying capacity or organization of grazing cycles and rotations. Destruction of alpine forests to create meadows for the grazing of sheep has resulted in forest fragmentation, erosion and watershed capacity reduction. Overexploitation of peat in some boreal habitats has also resulted in some damages to alpine ecosystems. Engineering of Waterways. In addition to pollution, among the most significant changes to aquatic ecology that have taken place in Romania have been alterations to the courses of rivers and the building of hydotechnical works.
In most instances these actions have had major negative consequences for aquatic biocoenoses relationships within biological communities and have caused the loss of natural ecosystems and terrestrial habitats, as well as the loss of ecological equilibrium of these ecosystems on a large scale. Of all the factors that have reduced the natural heritage of the Danube, probably none is more significant than channelizatiion.
In a one hundred and fifty-year period the Danube has lost major portions of its tributaries and backwaters, which were once composed of an extensive network of channels. By confining the river to a narrow deep channel, scouring faster moving water reaches the delta more quickly, thereby reducing the amount of water that used to reach the side channels of the river thereby virtually eliminating seasonal floods.
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This has greatly affected floodplain areas, which are now much dryer and are irrepresentative of their former ecological diversity 2.
Between and a total 69 dams two in Romania, bridging Romania and Serbia were constructed on the Danube.
Beginning with its headwaters in Germany, there are 58 dams along the first km of the Danube. As a result one of the largest remaining flood plain forests along this stretch of the river is slowly dying due to the lowering of the water table and reduced seasonal flooding. Other effects of damming include changes in the hydrodynamic cycle and interruption of the flow of subsurface waters.
The loss of groundwater as a result of hydrotechnical works has, for example, produced the partial or total drying out of about 20, ha of forests. The following four large-scale side effects are directly attributable to the Iron Gates Dam: First, the dam has interrupted the migratory routes of anadromous fishes, most notably the beluga sturgeon. Interruption of these routes has disrupted breeding, and has resulted in part in the systematic decline of this species.
Commercial fisheries, once thriving, are now defunct. In addition to providing habitat for non-native species especially game fishesdams and reservoirs impact aquatic biodiversity by isolating populations and disrupting genetic flow.
Second, alterations in the flow and elevation of the river resulted in the extirpation of large mayfly larvae, on which the sterlet Accipenser stellatus primarily subsisted. This larvae Palingenia laugicauda would feed and burrow in the moist banks of the Danube during the spring when the Danube would run high due to snowmelt upstream. During this period, the larvae would get exceptionally large, forming one of the main food resources for sterlet.
As the Iron Gates Dam regulates the flow of water in the river in response to human electricity needs, and because the Danube had been channelized to promote shipping traffic, seasonal flooding no longer occurred, and water was not retained in lower reaches of the river. Because the riverbanks no longer remained inundated, the larval burrowing sites dried up. The destruction of these larvaes habitat resulted in the local extinction of the insect species in the Danube thereby contributing to the virtual elimination of the sterlet.
A third effect of the dam is related to the second. In response to fluctuating water levels and channelization, anti aging bern swiss bear groapa the banks of the anti aging bern swiss bear groapa and shores of islands in the river dried up, forested areas which had evolved in response to these seasonal large-scale slow river level changes could not cope Companie elvețiană de refrigerare anti-îmbătrânire the rapid, small-scale changes, and thus died out entirely some forests remain on the islands.
A fourth scientifically observed result of damming the Danube is the reduction of the productivity of croplands in an area of the Romanian plain named Baragan. In this area, the Danube is approximately 1km wide in spots, and is abundant with forested islands.
This region is named Baragan for the following precipitation effect. In summer, hot, dry northerly winds cross the Danube into the Baragan region. Forests also described in the third effect above on the banks of, and on islands within, the Danube, transpire moisture from the river into the hot, dry air as it passes over.
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As the now moisture laden air passes over cool standing water bodies adjacent to the forests also attributable to the seasonal flooding of the Danubethe air changes temperature. This in turn causes condensation of the moisture in the air. By the time the condensation has reached the precipitation point, the air has moved beyond the standing water areas, and falls onto croplands.
The result of the changing water levels disrupted the forests, killing off large stands. Drying out the standing water areas exacerbated this effect. Loss of forest and standing water have thus resulted in a net loss transpiration, condensation and thus, of precipitation for agriculture not to mention the pre- existing biodiversity of the areawhich in turn has significantly reduced crop yields.
Building of dams on the Danube drainage basin has reduced the sediment load to the Black Sea coast and caused the partial loss of some psamophyllous sand loving species habitats. Reservoirs associated with dams in other areas have reduced forest and grasslands surfaces by aboutha. Draining wetlands for agriculture often produces unsuccessful farmland while destroying the wetlands.
The draining of wetlands throughout the country was promoted by the government prior to in order to create arable land for agriculture.
This practice led to the loss of approximatelyha of floodplains, particularly along the Danube river and in Crema anti-imbatranire divines Danube Delta 80, ha.
The embanking of the Danube and the building of the Iron Gates Dam has also had a major impact in destroying wetland spawning areas and the breeding success of many fish species.
Together with pollution this factor has led to a reduction of sturgeon harvest 50 times lower than previously reported and carp 10 times lower than previously reported. On the DDBR territory, as well as in all of Europe, more than half of all mammalian species are vulnerable.
There are no endemic species in the area.
All reptiles are protected in Europe by Bern Convention. While 7 anti aging bern swiss bear groapa the 11 species recorded in the Danube Delta are considered to be vulnerable, they are all included on the IUCN Red List because they are protected by international conventions.
None are considered to be threatened within the DDBR. Of the 84 freshwater and eurihaline species inventoried, 59 species are vulnerable.
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Of the 15 species recorded in the DDBR, 4 are endemic and 6 are subendemic species. Nine species are considered locally vulnerable. Vascular plants.
Romania has decided to decorate two persons whose ideas oppose the great mission of the Commission.
From a total number of species and subspecies once recorded in the DDBR, are still present, of which are included in the Red List. Two endemic species Centaurea jankae and Centaurea pontica are endangered. The Romanian government has been estimated that in the last fifty years, there has been a permanent loss ofha of forest and grassland ecosystems and that an additionalha have been temporarily or partially lost see Figure 2A.
Sincegiven the economic difficulties experienced by many Romanians, the tendency has been to exploit the natural resources as much as possible in order to generate quick incomes. There has therefore been considerable illegal extraction and gathering of forest resources, such as the cutting of small fir trees, the collection of mushrooms, medicinal herbs, and aquatic animals, and poaching.
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This has the effect of reducing viability of the species collected, and promotes an uncompetitive advantage for species anti aging bern swiss bear groapa collected. Introducing foreign varieties of trees to the floodplain forests and clear-cutting for agriculture and industry eliminates undergrowth and alters the function of the floodplain ecosystem.
Imaginea a ceea ce se concretizeaz n sensul de veritabil Poetic la Horia Stamatu se complinete i prin traducerile realizate de el de-a lungul timpului. Desigur, din varii i previzibile motive, o astfel de analiz nu face obiectul inteniilor noastre. Indirect ns, pentru a nu lsa cu totul n umbr aceast latur semnificativ pentru o personalitate de excepie a literaturii romne, vom ncerca s ptrundem puin n intimitatea acestui gen de preocupri creatoare. O vom face att prin intermediul unor comentarii avizate, ct i pe calea mrturiilor epistolare ale poetului. Astfel, Alexandru Lungu, unul dintre corespondenii constani ai acestuia, afirma pe marginea unei scrisori datat n 16 ianuarie Horia Stamatu este i un pasionat traductor de poezie.
Alarmingly, forests older than years are extremely rare in Europe. Forest management practices in Romania have not always been highly sensitive to protection and sustainable use of biological resources. In particular the overexploitation of wood in some areas, the selective extraction of economical and ecologically important trees, and the introduction of non-native species Douglas fir and Austrian pine have negatively impacted biodiversity.
It is generally accepted that these practices have reduced the quality of biodiversity on about 1, ha of land. Forest fragmentation and other threats Figure 2B has effects on timber and other flora, but crema hidratanta pentru ten uscat facuta acasa has devastating effects on large carnivores, especially lynx.
In order to realize immediate economic gain, following the change in government inmany Romanians took to poaching fish and wildlife.
Furs of bears, lynx, and wolf bring significant returns on the illegal species trade market. Chamois in the Rodna mountains are now threatened with disappearance as a result of poaching and the impact of poaching on sturgeon species is considered significant in the continuing population decline among numerous other effects described above.
Surface mining operations brown coal in the north of Oltenia, sulphur in the Calimani Mountains, and bituminous shale in Banat have caused irreparable damage to some important forest and grassland habitat. The use of heavy metals in gold mining, including Arsenic and cyanides, anti aging bern swiss bear groapa caused significant damage to natural ecosystems.
Of particular significance, on January 30,unable to withstand the pressure Romania Biodiversity Assessment 16 of rain and melting snow, a tailings lagoon at the Baia Mare Big Mine gold reprocessing plant overflowed and its retaining wall broke. Overcubic meters of cyanide and heavy metal contaminated waste water spilled out through the 25 m wide break and into the Lapus River. After the toxins flowed into the Somes, Tisza, and finally the Danube Rivers, over tons of dead fish including carp, zander, pike, perch, wels a cat fishand sterlet a species of sturgeon had to be hauled from the river.
The affects of this release have been widespread, with cyanide-contaminated dam tailings spread all the way to the Danube Delta. Numerous other mine sites, each of which is contaminated to varying degrees, persist throughout this region.