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Acta Musei, VI. Rezumat: Acest studiu discută cele mai recente interpretări ale cronologiei culturii Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladove, interpretări propuse de cercetătorii pe baza noilor date de cronologie ce completează şi compară sistemele cronologice mai vechi.

Cuvinte cheie: cronologie, intrepretări arheologice, cultura Lepenski Vir - Schela Cladovei, Mezolitic, Neolitic Timpuriu Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei 1 culture seems to have its beginnings simultaneous with the debut of Holocene.

This culture was formed in Mesolithic, and in its final stage of evolution it comes into contact with the Early Neolithic cultural complex of Starčevo-Criş 2.

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In the last years, since 3the chronological data increased mostly by technological evolution and became somehow 4 more reliable, adding new information to the existing archaeological data. Later on, it was noticed the similitude between the two, so that the double terminology began to be in use, either as Schela Cladovei — Lepenski Vir culture or as Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture.

Alibeg — Pescari; 2. Padina; 3.

Biography[] Child prodigy and Marxist militant[] Nicolae Iorga was a native of Botoșani, and is generally believed to have been born on January 17, although his birth certificate has June 6. In his own account: "My father was from a family of Romanian traders from Botoșani, who were later received into the boyar class, while my mother is the daughter of Romanian writer Elena Drăghici, the niece of chronicler Manolache Drăghici [ The [Greek] name Arghiropol notwithstanding, my maternal grandfather [was] from a family that moved in [

Lepenski Vir; arcadia energy switzerland anti aging. Vlasac; 5.

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Cuina Turcului — Dubova; 6. Ogradena — Icoana; 8. Ogradena — Răzvrata; 9. Hajdučka Vodenica; Ostrovul Banului - Gura Văi; Schela Cladovei — Drobeta-Turnu Severin; Velesnica; Ostrovul Mare — Gogoşu - km fluviali ; Ostrovul Mare 7 chronology of the culture as a whole.

Nevertheless, the interpretations were various, as each of the archaeologists involved in the direct research of the sites had their own particular terminology to address the new discoveries. Thus, there were several periodizations proposed for the internal evolution of Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture 6. Therefore the recent research focused on AMS analyses of animal and human bones while research continued on the whole archaeological findings discovered in the sites of this culture, aiming, on the basis of the distribution of this materials within the settlements and the spatial relation they bear with the archaeological structures, to obtain a more accurate interpretation of the later, and so, of the whole chronology of this culture 7.

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In the same time, new chronological data were obtained for the majority of the sites, be that by correction of the old data, or by obtaining fresh new ones. Direct archaeological research, in the field, continued at Schela Cladovei the project is still ongoing and at Vlasac between the yearsas also in the proximity of Lepenski Vir site, at the site Aria Babi between the years situated on the Košobrdo Hill, where the remains of an Early Neolithic settlement were discovered Borić13; Borićtable 1.

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Based on this new data, the author discusses some of the recent proposed interpretations for the chronology of Lepenski Vir arcadia energy switzerland anti aging Schela Cladovei culture.

Further more, as already stressed out before by the researchers themselves, who had obtain these new data, some of the samples were 8 Although sites such Padina, which was so often used in comparison with Lepenski Vir when discussing their internal chronology, is in my opinion a site that also raises problems.

Especially with the data so poorly published, and especially because it was used and probably will be still as an argument when discussing Lepenski Vir site. Therefore, I will underline the fact that the chronological data must be considered rather markers to which we relate when trying to fit in time the archaeological discoveries. The way that these discoveries were researched, recorded and published — a fact that is underlined in the majority of articles having this culture as subject masaj scapa de vene varicoase is important in trying to establish the chronology of a site or of a culture as a whole.

And since there are all those discrepancies in the archaeological field research of the sites assigned to Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture not only for these ones in the whole archaeology! But there are notable efforts from both sides of the Danube to increase the volume of data, as the publications grew more in number after Therefore this paper is interested in the available data and will not take its safety measure on the one waiting to see the light of day.

The latest and almost complete paper which presents the current chronological data for the majority of the sites from both banks of the Danube is The Mesolithic of the Iron Gates Bonsall Another new paper is Absolute Chronology and Stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir Borić and Dimitrijević which provides the data for the eponymous site itself.

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Boroneanţpresented inhaving with an approximate translation the title as Transition Period from Mesolithic to Early Neolithic at the Iron Gates This paper presents unpublished field 10 Absolute dating by using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS on human and animal bone samples, corrected for the freshwater reservoir effect see Bonsall et al.

And this effort was followed by the same author in her latest publication, namely The Mesolithic in Banat A. Boroneanţ which capitalizes the work done in her PhD thesis. In the first publication mentioned above, the authors proposed a 7- stage chronology for the Romanian banks of the Danube, as follows: 1- cca. In the second publication, the author proposed a 4 - stage periodization, for both banks of the Danube: 1- Early Mesolithic cca.

In the third publication, the authors proposed a new periodization of the Lepenski Vir site see figure 1. In the last publication mentioned, the author A. All these papers will be addressed in the paragraphs below. The arcadia energy switzerland anti aging that most of the new 12 researchers came to, on the basis of the new data obtained in the cele mai bune produse anti-îmbătrânire pentru pielea neagră years of arcadia energy switzerland anti aging, is that this culture appears in the Mesolithic period evolving into the Early Neolithic period, being one of the best examples of the so-called Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe.

One first problem that concerns chronological data is that authors often use, in the same paper the two terminologies BP before present and BC before Christ. It would be a desiderate that scientists will choose one of the two.

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Second discussion A second problem would be the terminology, which after all, it is just terminology. But some authors regard them as self-explanatory words, and even more, somehow trying to find data to enforce a particular terminology. We should provide clear support for a certain terminology. Thus, regarding the period called Mesolithic- Neolithic transition, there are authors that use the expression transformational phase see figure 1. The argument for transformational phase would be 13 that elements related to Neolithic way of life were found within some of the settlements of Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture.

But, they were not in use by the whole community, thus no major transformation of life appeared within these communities.

The one site which brought about this proposed interpretation, was Lepenski Vir itself, where 15 trapezoidal buildings Borić14out of c.

And from all the other sites, just for the one of Padina III site was mentioned the presence of ceramics, in 8 out of the 17 trapezoidal buildings Radovanovićassigned to Padina B phase. Regarding this last site, the evidence is not that clear as some authors would like to believe.

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On the current data, namely the photographs that show the ceramics in situ at Padina, we have to state that the evidence is 12 Because some of the researchers, such as D. Srejović and V. Boroneanţ, engaged before in the research of this culture, and came to the same conclusion years ago, with less data available. If we take an example, namely the photos at figure 8 from D. Borićone can see, when enlarging the right photograph see fig. And as far as I know, in situ should not be regarded as an artifact situated in a site, but as an artifact clearly integrated in a structure or a cultural level.

In this case, the pot is not on the platform of what would be the floor of the structure labeled house If it had been, then the pot 15 would have been with its bottom firmly resting on it, and not on a pedestal as it is clearly shown in the picture. And this is just one example of a trapezoidal building from Padina site, I use here to discuss such statement - …abundant Early Neolithic pottery is clearly associated with trapezoidal buildings at Padina Borićp.

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This example should question the validity of using such expressions as the one quoted. Moreover, the last publication on this site, done by the excavator himself, B. Jovanović also states the uncertainty in relating the pottery with the Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei cultural layer Jovanović, which enforces my argument. Then what would be clear here? The cause of the problem is the fact that the living structures of Neolithic communities were dug deep into the ground, disturbing the former cultural layers and destroying the previous structures which belonged to Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture.

And when discussing domesticated 16 animals associated with Neolithic communities, they seemed not to be identified within the levels 15 A pot, and the rest of pottery found within house 18 described by the excavator himself, B. Jovanovićp. And this is an argument further to the one I already stated in the text.

As for domesticated plants, they seem to lack. This could be by archaeological reasons methods of researchor by simply not existing. When discussing a transformation, arcadia energy switzerland anti aging would imply the adoption of a new way of life by a community economic and religious while continuing to use the same area, the same archaeological structures, in time evolving into a new culture.

This is not the case when referring to Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture, as the majority of its sites show the appearance of a new and different kind of communities, the ones of the cultural complex of Starčevo-Criş.

And the elements arcadia energy switzerland anti aging define Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture are just in a small scale transmitted onwards into the Neolithic communities, that is the use of the horns of deer as presumably mattocks.

The way that Starčevo- Criş communities built their living structures is different to the Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei. The mortuary rites are, as well, different. The art, the one that made the site Lepenski Vir in the first place so famous in archaeology, has some resemblance into some other sites of the same culture.

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But regarding the transmission of this into the Neolithic communities, in all the space attributed crema antirid dupa 30 de ani Starčevo-Criş cultural complex, in just one site, that is Gura Baciului I, there were reported Vlassap. Some which could show retardation term used so freely by N.

Vlassa, when referring to Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture from artistic point of view, within the Neolithic communities. The association of the boulders from Gura Baciului I with the inhumations discovered here, resemble somehow Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei funeral rite, but it is just that the record of it, as also stated by the excavator himself, was so poorly done, that it lacks evidence.

Perhaps a future investigation on that site could provide more secure data on this matter. Upon current research, all the sites assigned to Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture preserved the arcadia energy switzerland anti aging of the end of its inhabitations by the communities of this culture.

Even though the evidence suggested a relatively short time span between that moment and the one of the arrival of Starčevo-Criş communities, the remains of the last, do not offer sufficient archaeological data, on the basis of which we could presume that they were Brukenthal.

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In fact, quite the opposite, since so many of their living structures had affectively destroyed the ones of Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture. In the light of the information I discussed above, the term contact phase would be more correct when referring to the period when Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei communities begin to use new artifacts which were of a Neolithic tradition, but continued, at the same time, to rely heavily on their own specific tools.

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As previously stated, the one site that focused the new research to establish its chronology, and thus, somehow of the culture itself, is the eponymous site of Lepenski Vir. In recent studies D. Now, let us follow their arcadia energy switzerland anti aging, which were first stated inthen repeated in and in The arguments are as follows: Existing photos from Lepenski Vir misleadingly show these semisubterranean dwellings and their floors placed on Budincă elvețiană anti-îmbătrânire terrace, whereas they were lumene anti-imbatranire dug down some 0.

This phase was described by the excavator as consisting of rows of stone in a trapezoidal shape without central hearts FIGURE 8 and overlaying trapezoidal buildings of phase I. This evidence suggests that architectural features previously identified as Lepenski Vir II are stone footings and walls that surrounded the dug-in sides of the Lepenski Vir I post-framed buildings Borić But exactly the main argument which is put forward, namely the superimposing of the plans Borićfig.

Furthermore, another argument is the one that states that the buildings of LV I and LV II were dug into the slope and that this has not previously been recognized Borić But this argument is invalid since the archaeologist who excavated the site, namely D.

Srejović, had previously recognized it, as we can read, when he discusses the building of complexes of LV II: In order to find room for the backs of the houses it was no longer necessary to cut into the slopes of the shelf… Srejović In the same publication, speaking about the contours of the LV II buildings, he mentions that they were marked the same way as the ones of LV I: Since the trapezoidal shape was well known, the contours of the foundations were marked out at once, as earlier, by a border of broken stone Srejović And what is more important, the discoverer of Lepenski Vir stated that there was a clear difference between the two types of structure as the stone blocks that sustained the pillars of the upper part of the constructions, were placed vertically for LV I buildings and horizontally for LV II Srejović75; Radovanović In the same quoted text of D.

Borić we find yet another error, namely the one that claims that the excavator described LV II buildings as being without central hearths Borićsince D. Srejović had stated it, as such: the position and shape of the hearth remains the same i. The houses did not change their external form, but their interior looked different, they were no longer floored with limestone mortar.

As the subsoil was not ideally level arcadia energy switzerland anti aging there was no firm floor, the building construction in the interior of the house could not be made up, as earlier i. LV Iof small and light stone slabs, but only of a large and heavy stones which frequently had amorphous forms.

The irregular shape of the stones gave the houses of settlement II uneven edges and inaccurate proportions Srejović75 Therefore not only that there were hearths, but they were built in a different ratio, not as for LV I butand from stone blocks bigger and heavier than the ones used for the previously phase.

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As for the stone walls that would be part of the limestone mortar floors as D. Borić states, what would seem as a new argument, that they are especially pronounced in the steeper terrain of the rear arcadia energy switzerland anti aging the settlement Borićthis aspect was also pointed out previously by D.

Srejović: for the great stone blocks which support the high terrace in the western part of the settlement i. There was the constant danger too that landslides from the higher terraces might crush the backs of the houses. Directly behind them, therefore, arched supporting walls of stone blocks and slabs were set up to a height of about one metre. These constructions, executed in a dry-stone technique, are solidly built and in some layers have been preserved complete Srejović74and this quote continued the one above, in which was described the construction technique of the buildings of LV II, and which would at least deserve a quote mark by D.

Moreover, another strong argument, that maintains the periodization proposed by D. Srejović for the LV I and LV II as being two separate phases, is the stratigraphic one, according to which the cultural level of LVI was formed into a brown soil, which corresponds to the climatic Preboreal period, arcadia energy switzerland anti aging that LVII level was identified within a light-yellow soil, which corresponds to Boreal period Marković, Marjanović; If one reads only the quotes from D.

And such detail account used by the excavator cannot leave such suspicion that he would not observe if the stone walls were directly built from the limestone mortar arcadia energy switzerland anti aging And there are the other details mentioned, such as the different ratio of the hearths if there had truly been no hearths assigned to LV II then D. Borić would have had a solid argument, but that is not the casethe way produse anti-imbatranire pe pillars of the upper part of buildings were sustained, and last but not least there is the difference of the soil in which LV I was build and LV II was built.