The purpose of this study is to analyze the manner in which the relationship between book and society has been delineated into premodern Romanian society. Our analysis is based on a comparative perspective.
It emphases some studies of case, as they are resulted after the enquiry of the official papers of the Court, the denotation on the books pages, correspondence, chronicles, travel diaries. But before making any cursory generalization, we have to ask ourselves if we could extend this meditation within the feminine universe.
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Especially considering that the way of living and the cultural horizon of the two halves, masculine and feminine, have been so dissimilar up to the XIX th century. Associate Professor, Ph. As Răzvan Theodorescu 2 perceives plante anti-imbatranire pentru piele on artistic and cultural level, it is the age of transition between medieval and modern times.
Therefore, we will try to assign some of the reading coordinates, because if we consider Occidental historiography researches, it became clear that within the triad author - creation - reader, the last one is not at all seen as passive element. According to Michel de Certeau 4, the text is important only through those who actually read it, it changes along with them and is systematized on other perception codes.
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During the last years, researches on the history of culture have brought a displacement of the interest from book to reading and some of 1 Roger Chartier, Lecturi şi cititori în Franţa vechiului Regim, Bucureşti, Editura Meridiane, ; Roger Chartier, Guglielmo Cavallo, Histoire de la lecture dans le monde occidental, Paris, Ėditions du Seuil, ; Robert Darnton, Marele masacru al contrainte de larisse anti aging cream şi alte episoade din istoria culturală a Franţei, Iaşi, Editura Polirom, Orizontul imaginiivol.
But it is so difficult to investigate the practice of reading, because it leaves no tangible traces, but can only be perceived in an infinity of some other cultural gestures.
By recovering their traces, historiography enriches its discourse about the economical, social, political, cultural, simbolistical problematics 6. Far from being finished, it proves the selfhood of European discourse of researches as compared to the American one, especially if we count that women studies partisans consider that a history of the gender would guise women again, by opposing the two words, Herstory and Hi s -story, in a concise formula and an untranslatable wordplay9.
Sounding the past practices of reading is an interesting means of understanding the cultural practices of that time. But the sources we might use to make such a historical reconstruction are quite few and fragmentary: in this case of feminine elite, most of the testimonies are indirect.
Rosetti Linguistic Institute Prof. Cuza University of Iaşi Prof.
However, we consider that the use of sources like these, may offer suggestions, hypothesis, approximations, interrogations. In order to delineate the feminine reading features, we have chosen to strike out three different directions of investigating the Romanian society of the XVII 14 centuries: the patronage over the printing activities, feminine book donations and reading, as individual way of selfperfection.
It has brought the resumption of typographic activity in Wallachia, which contrainte de larisse anti aging cream not be considered as a temporary cultural success, but also in the terms of strengthening the monarchic authority It is, in fact, a real typographical revulsion that may be noticed in the four typographic centres, CâmpulungGovoraDealu Monastery and Târgovişte 7 Ibidem.
From the History of Reading.
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In this cultural climate, alongside lordly patronage, Udrişte Năsturel has been asserted himself as a real spiritual coordinator of those times. Even if we do not know many of her education, we may presume that she could speak Greek; as the wife of the Wallachian voivode, she has been associated with Matei Basarab in his cultural patronage.
Although the researches of women history have been for a long time tributary to some anecdotic and sententious reconstructions, even romanticized, the recent studies, as those signed by Violeta Barbu, Maria Magdalena Szekely, Sorin Iftimi, Dan Horia Mazilu 14 are trying to pull out of the anonymity the women statute and their destiny in Romanian past history.
In this stage of Romanian typographic activity, when the religious texts were quite prevailed, along with those of moral education, the praises dedicated to Elena Năsturel do not surpass the religious terms. II, pp.
XXXII, pp. XI, part I,p. During the last decades, historians have studied the act of founding as connected to religious mentality and it is seen as some kind of bridge between man and God; the founder tries this way to achieve the holly grace Books and manuscripts donation surpasses the religious significance; there is also a cultural purport, because of the books circulation within the entire Romanian territory, even beyond state frontiers. We will try to illustrate a few sequences of the books itinerary, in order to reveal the manner the feminine elite became part contrainte de larisse anti aging cream such a cultural experience.
Incidentally, I know personally the authors of the most interesting projects of new churches not so incidentally practically none of the respective projects was carried out. I also wrote a few books addressing the matter of the sacred space2 both from the vantage of architecture and the hermeneutics of the biblical text. As this experience, as much as it is, directly connects with the topic of the sacred space and because it also pertains to the public space, involving to a great extent aspects of professional deontology and ethics of the actors of the public space, I will present several contemporary problems of the sacred space as perceived by the theorist and also by the practitioner of architecture. A Brief History After it became obvious that there will be a huge pressure to build rapidly new cult abodes for all the denominations.
There is also another social level of nobility elite that can be noticed among the women who have made books donations. Or Canonul Sf. Finally, the feminine reading as a practice and modality of improving the intellectual horizon starts from the way the literacy could open the access to knowledge, at the elite level.
Corina Teodor hypothetical up to the XIX th century, the study of women correspondence and other documents - testaments, in the first instance, might gave us indirect marks. Even if there were no women of letters in Romanian Countries outside the Carphatians, such as Queen Margot - whose celebrity in European historiography is due to Robert Muchembled commentaries on her written memories 25, or Veronica Franco, Vittoria Colonna, Gaspara Stampa - poetess of the Renaissance, the feminine literacy was not lacking.
IX, Bucureşti,pp. Memoriile Secţiei 18 From the History of Reading.
Diplomatic documents, testaments, the correspondence and marginal notices, giving information about the feminine passion of reading, are all going to complete the image of the feminine elite. At the end of the XVIII th century, Tzigara, a man whose work was to take care of the horses, drivers and mail stoppages from Moldavian territory, gave us a few information about his family destiny; thus, he proves that, during the age of Enlightenment, even the families with a lower social statute were having access to education.
Şi avea 33 de ani. The Pre-Enlightenment climate emphasis the interest in the triumph of rationality, education and intellectual instruction. If we are interested on an educational pattern, we will find more information about the cantemirian one; we may thus observe that, after his settling in Russia, inDimitrie Cantemir, the scholar prince, has never forget the ideal of giving his children the chance of studying abroad, as we may read in his testament.
Her sensibility, her literary horizon, her profound knowledge on Greek and Latin she used for corresponding, all those are revealed by the reflections based on her own reading; she has been provided with books due to her brother, Antioh.
Maria used to read a lot, especially literary and classic, humanist historiography works, Horace, Cornelius Nepos, Flavius Josephus, Appian, Boccaccio, but she was also interested in some books that were quite appreciated in those times, such as the comedies of Juan Batista Diamante, the Spanish writer, and travel diaries.