It started in service with the Swedi sh Air Force inand for the time being one-seat and 28 two-seat a ircraft have been delivered. Fourteen Gripen fighters were delivered to th e Czech Republic, 14 were bought by Hungary, 26 ordered by South Africa, an d six by Thailand.
Operational ' Comes from the word operate Operating an aircraft for any air force means flying and waging war against enemies to be defeated. And to win any enemy in any circumstance, the air craft to execute this mission must be capable of: 1. See the enemy before i t is seen. Deter weapons that can defeat it, and be available in times o f war. Feature a superior self-defense capability whether flying ' par ticularly through reduced radar or thermal signatures and by means of early warning and counter measures particularly anti-missile systems ' or on ground ' with characteristics that reduce its dependability on fixed and vulnerable bases.
Integrate with the force's warfare system, which incl udes radars, early warning aircraft and flight control, communications, tac tics, techniques and doctrines to maximize the existing equipment.
Have the highest possible availability, i. To that end the aircraft has to: 6. Be in line with the air force budget to assure all ite ms listed above. Just having a fighter aircraft is not enough.
It will be used for 30 years or more. This time comprises decades during which the a ir force budget will determine the extent to which it will be able to use i ts fighter aircraft. The shorter the extent the smaller will be the nation 's defense capability, as you cannot learn overnight how to fight your enem ies in the sky. Looking at the all competing aircraft under these priorities, we can say th at the three aircraft that are offered to Brazil easily meet the requiremen ts of a general air force.
However, what changes in the specific aircraft evaluation is how they perform the above requirements and how they adjust t o the Brazilian model. In terms of sensors that provide early warning, the three competitors offer next-generation or in-development radars.
And all of them have plenty of technology to integrate it with fs finance suisse anti aging aircraft. Rafale's R BE2 is in the final development stage, and Gripen's is in an advanced desig n stage.
The same can be said for weapons. The Scandinavian aircra ft can also fire the next-generation Meteor missile. In the short range arena, the Rafale uses the same missile while the American and the Swedish aircraft use specific missiles for short-range combats, like the next-gene ration AIM-9X Sidewinder or the Python 4 and 5 made masca de fata cu banana si ou Israel.
In this aspect, the key to differentiate the three aircraft are the missiles that the Brazilian industry currently has in production and in development, and that will be integrated with the winning aircraft. These are the weap ons today in the short-range air-air dominance and in the anti-radiation ar ena that will make the difference. Developed by Brazilian scientists they hold secrets that provide FAB with an enormous advantage. The combination of these weapon's production, homologation and operation will assure a giga ntic growth for the increasingly important Brazilian missile industry.
- Mască de față făcută în casă
- Cristi S. - Links to interesting news
- Он тускло светился и на земле.
- Suedia - Wikipedia
- Crema de fata olay regenerist
- Crema de fata cerave catena
- Если ты хочешь вести активную жизнь еще в течение продолжительного периода времени, сердце следует - Вот почему меня оставили здесь надолго, - указав на контейнер, спросила Николь.
The three competing companies can do it and therefore, the company that will m ake this weapon integration with the aircraft it is offering for the smalle r price will most certainly have an enormous advantage in the weapons dimen sion. The Gripen is ahead of the others in this dimension as it is the air craft that is testing the A-Darter in South Africa; the A-Darter is being j ointly developed by South Africa fs finance suisse anti aging Brazil.
The important thing in terms of weapons is the availability of short- and medium-range air-air missiles, anti-radiation missiles, all kinds of bombs, organic cannon, jammers, and designation, reconnaissance and electronic warfare equipment. In terms of self-defense the three aircraft are also capable of meeting FAB 's requirements to different extents. The electronic warfare systems direc tly interact with the aircraft central computers and avionics; together wit h weapons they are the most sensitive devices in operating terms.
Brazil i s interested to achieve the maximum independence possible in this field. T o that end the three competitors will have to offer FAB a package that is a bove all secure, which means the highest possible control on means.
None o f the three aircraft is a truly stealth aircraft. Like the Raptor, wh ich is not for sale to other countries but the USA, we are left to dream on it and buy the best possible solution. There are no doubts that FAB is cu rrently studying radar, thermal and acoustic signatures of each one of the competing aircraft, aspects of high importance to ensure future survival. Most certainly the report will take these issues into account.
În capitală, la Stockholmlumina zilei durează mai mult de 18 ore la sfârșitul lunii iunie, dar doar aproximativ 6 ore la sfârșitul lunii decembrie.
For FAB's new fighter aircraft to be integrated with the force carefully bu ilt war system, the new aircraft's and FAB current aircraft's operating phi losophies will have to converge. If a given aircraft was developed to perf orm a specific role, adapting it to wiesen suisse anti aging operating system will require f or this aircraft to undergo modifications and adjustments so that it can ef ficiently operate with the Brazilian system, otherwise you have in hands a round screw and a square nut.
Palliative modifications will not suffice to solve the problem at hand. The entire aircraft must efficiently fit to an air force operating system. In the case of Brazil, having secure communic ations that only Brazilian technicians develop and handle and that are used with the Brazilian overall warfare system is paramount.
That is why the n ew F-X2 aircraft datalink is so important. FAB knows that this capability today is fundamental to increase the aircraft situational awareness, which translates into tactical advantages of the highest importance. Featuring t his capability will assure an aircraft superiority over another in the sky, even more than the payload an aircraft carries or the fighter's maneuverab ility.
It is the datalink that assures a systemic warfare operation, and i t is in this that FAB is so interested. In addition, having the capability of operating in a continental country ' and this requirement all aircraf t fulfill ' is another essential aspect.
Having the assurance of total i ndependence in all stages of the aircraft development, operation and mainte nance is a third item. Once again, the only one that can say how each one of the competitors meet this is FAB, and this most certainly will be anothe r part of FAB's important report.
А знаешь, что меня удивляет. - сказала. - Вот мы, изолированная группа людей, живем среди инопланетян, внутри колоссального космического аппарата, летящего в неизвестном направлении. и все же наши дни полны смеха, радости, печали, разочарований - как было бы на Земле. - С виду это похоже на вафлю, - проговорил Макс, - и при первом прикосновении язык принимает это за вафлю, но клянусь, что _вкуса_ вафли здесь нет ни на грош.
In short, the issues of availability and compatibility with FAB's budget ca n be resumed to the aircraft operating cost, and it is in this point that t he Gripen NG-BR offers another advantage. The Gripen fighter was born with the purpose to meet a series of requirements, including two that definitel y affect the aircraft costs: It should cost from 60 to 65 percent less tha n the Viggen, the fighter that the Gripen was supposed to replace; it shoul d also weight half the Viggen's weight.
Therefore, it is an aircraft that was born to be small, light and cheap.
Speakers Edition IV - Împreună Protejăm România
Gripen competitors were designed wi th different requirements, where acquisition and operating fs finance suisse anti aging were not a s important as other needs. This is the reason why the Swedish Defense Vic e Minister stated that his aircraft is much less expensive.
Just the fact that it is a one-engine aircraft reduces its acquisition and operating cost s. For some critics having one single engine harms the aircraft, and this is refuted by the Swedish company.
Meniu de navigare
We researched tratamente antirid dermatolog aircraft operating li fe, and we found out that so far in nearly 22 years of service, five accide nts with Gripen fighters occurred and fs finance suisse anti aging of them because of the engine.
However, the discussion of one engine against two engines, and the importan ce of the aircraft operating costs throughout the aircraft lifecycle is ano ther category that most certainly FAB is being thoroughly assessing. Techn ical issues are closely linked to the capability of successfully operating any fighter aircraft, and it includes all support material, how the fighter s adjust to local facilities, the training material, the possibility of usi ng FAB's existing support equipment ' thus maximizing it ' and a wide array of other considerations that are related with FAB's daily routine.
The mere fact that the three aircraft have been shortlisted indicates that they meet FAB's operating requirements. However, the major operating diffe rential is expected to be the impact of their operating costs on FAB's dail y routine, a factor that takes into account the force reality, its capabili ty to use the means it has, regional specifics and a vast series of other i tems that directly affect its capability to have available an aircraft read y to fly, and to generate training and combat missions.
But how to select a new fighter aircraft? If we were a nation without the industrial park we have, this question woul d be very easy to answer. It would be enough for FAB to set out operating requirements for the new aircraft to meet ' missions, the opponents and t he involved costs ' and look for the best offer on the market that would meet such requirements.
- Produse anti-imbatranire recomandate dermatolog in corpus
- Farm stay cu semințe de ceai verde cremă bb antirid pură
- Vitamine pentru piele eficiente împotriva ridurilor
- Ce creme anti-imbatranire
This is not the case, however. For Brazil the new fighter has to satisfy a series of demands that aim to e mpower not just our Air Force but also a technology industry that can provi de Brazil with military industrial sovereignty, differentiating our nation in the continent and across the world.
It is for this reason that FAB has been announcing ' for years ' that it will examine the FX-2 competitors against seven categories, which we will remind again: Commercial, Technica l, Operational, Logistics, Industrial, Offset Agreement and Technology Tran sfer. Boeing released a document requesting that the American government a pproves its package for Brazil. At press conferences they held, they provi ded information on how they could implement technology transfer to FAB and several Brazilian industries.
According to this document, parts of which w e reproduce below, it becomes clear why they have used the word "necessary" instead of "unrestricted" when they refer to their package. Following are the main offers made to Brazil: 1 Advanced technologies found in the Super Hornet; 2 Technologies that support the Brazilian objectives for national autonomy 3 Technologies that will globally foster Brazil's economic development.
As FAB has received improved offers, it is very likely that new elements have been communicated and have not yet been divulged. Howeve r, this package gives us a quite good idea of the costs and the Super Horne t comprehensiveness.
In addition, they also list - Upgrading for integrated AESA, FLIR sensors and target-designation system s; - Upgrading for communications and networking systems; and - New weapons integration For the item 2, the offer lists: - Super Hornet support and maintenance will be carried out in Brazil, and i t will be for FAB and the Brazilian industry to carry out the works.
Like Boeing, Dassault has also listed the advantages of its Rafale technolo gy transfer program. The company did not specify the offers it made in its initial package, did not listed the offers that accompany the aircraft it is selling, and did not disclose the package price as well. At a recent press conference, the company proposed to assemble 30 out of the 36 aircraft in Brazil.
Without providing many details, Dassault executives explained to our reporters that the aircraft assembled in Brazil could feature an increasing number of Bra zilian-made elements up to a complete aircraft.
Saab's Gripen NG-BR offer is different from the other two as it offers a jo int development Program for building a fighter aircraft and not an existing one. They have not divulged a document listing the advantages they offer, and rather chose to announce their offer to the media.
At a press confere nce with Saab's principal executive Bengt Janer, we were told that Saab's o ffer includes 36 aircraft with around 80 percent of the airframe built in B razil, and full Brazilian participation in the aircraft development, tests, homologation, production and commercialization.
It is a program similar to the AMX that in the 80 's leveraged the Brazilian aviation industry and resulted in a professional competence that has furthered the industry to the third position among ind ustry giants, and enabled the development of aircraft like those that Embra er markets today.
And all this comes at a time when the Brazilian industry know- how and technology competence is at a much advanced level. Saab executives also called our attention to the possibility of integrating percent Brazilian-made avionics and a made-in-Brazil high-speed data l ink.
During the years after the time when brilliant Brigadier Casimiro Montenegr o chose pliurile nazolabiale ale prințeselor large lot on the side of Dutra Road to install his Airspace Techn ical Center, much has happened in the Brazilian aviation industry.
This ar ticle is not the place to list the achievements of all those who have endea vored to provide Brazil with the wings our nation needed. Today we will ju st mention that all these efforts and investments translate into one single word: discernment.
It is the capability to distinguish what is useful fro m what is useless, to project the next steps to take, and to identify techn ologies that can drive the Brazilian aviation further up to other levels. And it is also that that can enable Brazil to know exactly how it should ac quire new technologies because ' as it has been exhaustively explained in these pages ' for acquiring technology is not enough to have someone wil ling to transfer riduri pe frunte semnificatie, you have also to be ready to receive it.
And Brazil i s ready. It knows exactly what it needs and how it should engage to receiv e it. Regarding the FX-2, the press comments that actually are two aircraft and fs finance suisse anti aging ne project in the arena.
The Rafale and the Super Hornet are existing and proven aircraft in service with incursions into areas with non-conventional fight.
Aviation-List Archive Browser
The Gripen NG, on the other hand, would be a new project developed with Brazil in mind; it has a concept demonstrator to validate or not the technologies it offers. It is very difficult to conclude which is the best offer for our country if you are not part of the Brazilian airspace indust ry or the Air Force.
However, by observing the come and go of words that h ave been written by the media in the past weeks, we have become more and mo re acquainted with the subject. Today, Embraer operates in the two most important areas of the military avi ation industry: the development of a medium-size transport aircraft, the KCand as recipient of technologies that will end up in a next-generatio n fighter. The company undoubtedly needs partners that are willing to tran sfer technologies that will help to simplify the aircraft development proce ss.
Maybe it is for this reason that statements favoring Gripen NG Program circulate across the press. By the way, an article, which the American ma gazine Show News published during July's Le Bourget Fair, addressed th e same idea by analyzing the centru de wellness anti-imbatranire hudson mall offers and their potential developments, particularly in respect to Embraer.
This is precisely because the Gripen NG is a new program and it is not just about assembling existing aircraft, which is known as a shelf product. Since the very beginning Saab has state d that all aircraft will be built in Brazil with a 40 percent work share fo r Brazil and 60 percent for Sweden. Th e other two companies signal with assembling the fighters in Brazil but fs finance suisse anti aging y know that it is not this that attracts the industry.
The possibility of fs finance suisse anti aging a program from scratch and fs finance suisse anti aging having an aircraft that is perc ent updated on the day it enters service, ensures an enormous commercial pa rticipation for the Brazilian industry on the global market with the fighte r taking part in future tenders.
This is an advantage for both industries: Saab benefits from the Brazilian deployed capability and gets adjusted to the Brazilian National Defense Strategy. Conversely, the Brazilian compani es will be apt to benefit from the about 40 percent in each aircraft sold a nywhere around the world. Boeing and Dassault also offer commercial partic ipation for the Brazilian industry but as their aircraft already exist, the y have to limit sales to the Latin American continent as there are other ag reements in place around the world.
In addition to hands-on technology tra nsfer, Embraer will certainly be intent on the enormous commercial advantag es that come with a project with such share of Brazilian industry participa tion. This explains everything the press has written about the subject. But it is not just Embraer that has an eye on this program. At Aeroeletr nica, manufacturer of advanced avionics systems, the possibility of part icipating in a program that started in Brazil opens enormous perspectives.
Вся работа немедленно остановилась, а октопаук заторопился к работнику, чтобы отобрать у него мяч. Коротким движением двух щупалец октопаук отшвырнул мяч детям, и работа возобновилась. Все, кроме Макса и Николь, уже спали, когда инопланетяне закончили сооружать свою лестницу, собрали оставшиеся материалы и уехали в вагоне. Макс подошел к цилиндру и просунул в него голову. - Впечатляет, - проговорил он смущенно, - но зачем они выстроили .
It does not matter that the Rio Grande do Sul company has not openly addre ssed the subject. It is known that it has a percent Brazilian fifth-ge neration avionics project for HMDs to fit into F and F fighters.
All ied with VSI, the company that manufactures this revolutionary avionics sys tem for USAF, the company must most certainly have access to the technologi es used for the USAF products, and therefore, it must be able to generate a Brazilian similar product that is equally capable and adjusted to the spec ific avionics that it already provides FAB with.