Keywords: E. Cioran, F. Nietzsche, Osamu Dazai, antihumanism, overman, nihilism, literature, existentialism, philosophy Abstract. A new philosophical and anyhropological-psychological concept is needed for the alienated and radically different human being according to the nihilist Romanian-French philosopher E. This concept of the not-man describes a post-anthropological subject, which is inhuman from a psychological point of view, emphasizing estrangement and otherness in the definition of humanity.
I have compared Ciorans provocative and unusual term with Nietzsches analysis of the overman the difference between the two concepts proceeding from two conflicting nihilist perspectives and I also have identified the not-man in the novel of the Japanese writer Osamu Dazai, No Longer Human.
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E-mail: stefan. Cioran, The Twilight of Thoughts 1.
Ciorans Not-Man In his first Romanian book, On the Heights of DespairEmil Cioran constructs, in his ambiguous and lyrical style, a definition of a new concept, the not- man: There are among men some who are not far above plants or animals, and therefore aspire to humanity. But masti cu carbune activ who know what it means to be Man long to be anything but If the difference between Man and animal lies in the fact that the animal can only be an animal whereas man can also be not-man that is, something other than himself jeffrey james botanicals anti-imbatranire I am not-man.
The pride of being human is a symptom of the lesser men, who worship their deficit. Cioran, On the Heights of Despair, trans.
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XX No. Those who know that Man is a dead end, a being unable to evolve, despise the phenomenon of man. An important question must be asked: if we renounced humanity, whereto would we head? Should we become theocentric instead of anthropocentric?
Or if the way towards divinity is closed, should we go back to animality? We understand that the not-man is no longer human. But how could one define it? From a psychological point of view, the not-man is a stranger aliusa spiritual mutation. For instance, the overman transcended the human nature and occupied a new territory as we shall see later, Cioran claimed that the overman conquered the domain of deity.
However, the not- man went beyond humanity but found no such domain: that is why from the perspective of mankind, the not-man is a subman, a being unable to find a proper home and essence, a punishable psychological outsider. In another Romanian book, The Twilight of ThoughtsCioran further develops this definition of non-humanity: Cynics jeffrey james botanicals anti-imbatranire no longer supermen or submen, they are post-men.
One begins to understand and even love them, when a confession addressed to one or maybe to no one escapes from the pains of our absence: I was man and I no longer am now1 One can ask: what do we become when we cease to be human?
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From a theological perspective we become demons, from a mythological perspective, we become Titans, from a psychological perspective we become psychopaths, from a philosophical perspective nihilists. These four metaphors can describe the psychological future of the human race.
The not-man is the other, the alterity of man. If God created the man in his own image Genesis 1. We must note the not- man is not simply anti-human a term we must use for the misanthropic anti- humanism of Lautramont, who hoped for the destruction of the human race: were the earth covered in lice like grains of sand on the seashore, the human race would be annihilated, stricken with terrible grief2he rather is in-human.
It is more likely that the not-man is the being of the future, who looks back at the history of mankind and analyses it from a non-human perspective.
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If man will be erased like a face drawn in sand at the edge of the sea3, the not-man will be its successor. If the over-man were an alternate god, the not-man would be an alternate, estranged alienus man. What Is Nihilism? Perhaps a basic understanding of nihilism would be helpful for our task: Nihilism is the belief that all values are baseless and that nothing can be known or communicated.
Joacă îngrijirea corpului is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have 1 E. Alexis Lykiard Cambridge: Exact Change, Philobiblon Vol. Here is what Friedrich Nietzsche, the first important theoretician of nihilism, said about values: What does nihilism mean? That the highest values devaluate themselves.
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The aim is lacking; why? Briefly: the categories aim, unity, being which we used to project some value into the world we pull out again; so the world looks valueless. God, once the highest value, is now valueless. Moreover, nihilism could very well be defined as a project of destruction of society, as we learn from the novel which mentions for the first time in the history of literature the term nihilist, Fathers and Sons by Turghenev.
Destruction, the clearing of the ground becomes almost religious, making up the meeting point between nihilism and anarchism: Nowadays the most useful thing of all is rejectionwe reject. But allow me, Nikolai Petrovich began. You reject everything, or, to put it more precisely, you destroy everything But one must also build. Thats not for us to do First, the ground must be cleared.
For now one can observe that nihilism has two distinct sides: A. Nihilism as a sign of increased power of the spirit: as active nihilism. Nihilism as decline and recession of the power of the spirit: as passive nihilism. Ciorans abhorrence of action places the Romanian philosopher closer to Schopenhauer and Buddha, in a nostalgic and melancholic territory where ambiguous nihilism seems to act against itself.
Philobiblon Vol XX 2015 NR 1
Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power, ed. Walter Kaufmann, trans. Walter Kaufmann and R. Hollingdale New York: Vintage Books, enspri creme anti-imbatranire, Michael R.
Katz New York: W. Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power, Nietzsches Overman One can reconstruct the definition of the Navetiști anti-îmbătrânire elvețieni by taking into consideration three fragments from Thus Spoke Zarathustra. The first one: What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment.
You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm.
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Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape. The ape, metaphor for an ignoble past, when the animal soul was engaged in biological immediacy, is the human being fallen asleep. The ape is the term which best expresses stagnation, the jeffrey james botanicals anti-imbatranire of the minus human being man is more ape than any ape.
The man is the achievement of the ape, an achievement so grand that makes the initial draft ridiculous.
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From an opposite perspective, the ape is a warning and a reminder for man. The warning says: You can go back to subhumanity. The reminder: Anything you do, the ape mirrors you. One must observe that it is impossible to build a mythology without constant reference to zoology.
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Another relevant text for the configuration of the definition of the overman follows: The overman is the meaning of the earth. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth!
I beseech you, my brothers, remain faithful to the earth, and do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes! Poison- mixers are they, whether they know it or not.
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These hopes are counterproductive, therefore infecting the will to power: while they create an imaginary world, they curse this very world. To sin against the earth is now the most dreadful sin TSZ, p. The worshippers of God took refuge in a transcendent world, therefore they neglect this world.
Moreover they abandoned the existential idea of responsibility, claiming that this life is only a prelude to future eternal life. Now that God died and his worshippers died with him TSZ, p. Now we can describe the third dimension of the overman: Behold, I teach you the overman: he is this sea; in him your great contempt can go under. What is the greatest experience you can have? It is the hour of the great contempt. The hour in which your happiness, too, arouses your disgust and even your reason and your virtue.
Now, in the hour of the great contempt, the overman becomes an active nihilist, renouncing happiness, reason and virtue. This active nihilism claims that the avoidance of pain and the compulsive pursuit of happiness is a symptom of weakness: What matters my happiness? But my happiness ought to justify existence itself.
This percept sounds strange to any reader of Nietzsche: what else if not happiness may be our supreme motivation? Nietzsches answer is straightforward: the will to power is more fundamental and also has a higher finality than happiness. To summarize, the overman may be defined through three terms: self- overcoming man is overmans apefaithfulness to this world and existence and conversely the existential realization that otherworldly hopes are poisonous and active nihilism, as one can see from the destruction of the notion of happiness my happiness is poverty and filth.
We can redefine the overman as an active nihilist, who whishes to overcome humanity and forever renounces the Platonic and Christian delusion of the jeffrey james botanicals anti-imbatranire world.
The nihilist becomes the being of destruction, annihilating anything that deserves to perish. Here Nietzsche echoes Bakunin, who claimed that the passion for destruction is a creative passion. Cioran Against the Overman There are at least three arguments against the Nietzschean overman, according to Cioran. First, the Romanian-French philosopher argues that Nietzsche demolished so many idols only to replace them with others.
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There is a fragment in Nietzsche, which supports the claim that the overman is an alternate God: Dead are all gods: now we want the overman to live TSZ, p. However, we must not forget that the jeffrey james botanicals anti-imbatranire is faithful to the earth and committed against the poisonous Platonic other world, which means that the overman must be as immanent as the existing real human being.
So, is jeffrey james botanicals anti-imbatranire overman God-like or rather man-like?
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Probably both: the overman can be seen as a transgressor, as a being that creates beyond itself, while remaining in the same time a creature that has more in common 1 Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power, Bernard Williams, trans.