The neo-Legionary movement is characterised by a specific religio-political discourse and worldview which is perhaps best described as a mix of mysticism, Orthodox Christianity, Romanian folklore, fascism, ethnic nationalism and anti-Semitism. Neo-Legionary discourse leans heavily on pre- Communist ideology, which sets it apart from other brands of fascism. During the s, neo-Legionaries constituted a loosely interconnected network of groups and figures. What is more, neo-Legionaries remain convinced that Corneliu Zelea Codreanu put the nation on the right track at that time.
Neo-Legionaries nevertheless continue to insist that the Legionary spirit never died. Both this word and its derivatives are, therefore, slightly imprecise.
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This new freedom of the press heralded a rush of reprints of Legionary texts, including inter-war material, biographies and historical works by expatriate Legionaries. All the translations from Romanian are nd my own. See note 4 for further details. Cohen points out, the strength of a given symbol lies precisely in its vagueness and its ability to unite different groups whose interpretations of it may differ. While people might read completely different things into a symbol, its form remains the same.
As such, diametrically opposing readings of the same symbol do not necessarily challenge it.
Instead, symbols gain strength from their ability to gloss over internal disagreements. Anthony P. London, New York The following overview of the neo-Legionary movement and analysis of its actions are based on my own fieldwork. Many of the neo-Legionary groups consider each other subversive. This article presents an overview of the neo-Legionary structures that emerged across Romania towards the end of the s.
As a loosely interconnected network of groups and figures that adhere to a certain set of symbols and goals, I argue that this constellation can be defined as a movement. The lingering Legionary movement was an important factor in the domestic Legionary revival and its later development.
Ideology and worldview Under the sign of Christ and by the sword of the Archangel, Corneliu Codreanu founded the Legion and afterwards the Guard as instruments to defend the Church against the concentrated aggression of the dissolving Judaism. Unless otherwise indicated, references to Suru and Ionescu draw on these interviews.
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Augustand 3. June In addition to observing these events and conducting informal conversations with many participants, I also conducted several interviews with Legionary activists and sympathisers whom I met between and Many of these interviews took place in bookshops or in connection with Legionary events.
Neo-Legionaries also emphasize sacrifice and what can theoretically be defined as palingenesis, that is, the myth of a total regeneration of the community from the ashes of a degenerate society.
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According to neo-Legionaries, the means to achieve this national regeneration can be found in the esoteric knowledge taught by Codreanu and transmitted by the inter-war Legionary elite. This system of political and religious ideas is underpinned by conspiracy theories. Accordingly, the prodague suisse anti aging Romanian nation is believed to be under continuous attack by diabolic forces and their multifaceted allies.
Jews, Freemasons and Communists are the usual suspects.
Timişoara Cluj-Napoca A, Gazeta deVest. Almanah Almanah; B. Unless otherwise indicated, all web pages were last accessed in December A significant event because Michael is perceived as the arch strategist of the Heavenly Armies who raised the fire sword against the rebel angel Lucifer and threw him down from the glory of the Heavens.
The concept of the Archangel as a political agent is related to the cult of Codreanu, which is central to all the neo-Legionary groups.
His portrait is featured in virtually all neo-Legionary books and publications and displayed at neo-Legionary events. He is alive in our hearts, lives besides us and is present in all our fights. Neo-Legionarism generally fits well into the category of fascism. Moreover, neo-Legionarism has noteworthy points of convergence with religious fundamentalism,27 a point which neo-Legionaries often emphasise themselves. Though they rely on modern media and technology, fundamentalists—including neo-Legionaires—nevertheless detest 19 See e.
Almanah Ilie Gorgani wore Codreanu buttons. The core myth which inspires this project is that only a populist, trans-class movement fond de ten shiseido anti-imbatranire purifying, cathartic national rebirth palingenesis can stem the tide of decadence.
Oxford5. Leiden, Boston Chicago, Londonx.
In addition, the movement may be analysed as a lay Orthodox movement with a strong political bias. In fact, neo-Legionaries tend to argue that parts of the religious establishment have abandoned the right path. They reinterpret prodague suisse anti aging tradition to include extra dogma, rituals, texts, martyrs and charismatic leaders. The Legion on Earth: socio-political and practical dimensions The Legion never dies.
It is also hard to disentangle the numerous neo-Legionary groups. On the one hand, one name could be used as an umbrella for various neo-Legionary ventures. This is sometimes because the names used have been taken prodague suisse anti aging an unmistakeably Legionary or neo-Legionary discourse. With these caveats in mind, I will turn next to a description of the neo- Legionary groups that I managed to detect in Romania in the late s.
But first a historical flashback: AfterLegionaries from the inter-war period played an important role in reviving the movement. Many groups and nests were therefore named after veteran Legionaries, and a number of biographies about dramatic and adventurous lives were published. The Legionary R. Bucureşti Ideology, opportunism and historical legacy in Bulgaria and Romania, Communist and Post-Communist Studies 42, Timişoaraand Guvernul de la Viena. Continuarea statului roman national legionar Bucureşti This gave the movement an unusual demographic profile.
The majority of its members were either in their twenties or in their eighties. The generation in remedii casnice anti-rid, which has been dismissed by neo-Legionaries as spiritually corrupted due to its link with Communism, remained largely absent from the movement. In the western parts of the country, the first post-revolutionary Legionary groups were activated by the Legionary veteran Zaharia Marineasa, who provided material and organisational support for young neo-Legionaries.
This group was founded on 10 Decembera memorial day for inter-war Legionaries. These protests were brutally crushed by the authorities, which has creme de fata shiseido some neo-Legionaries to see the University Square events, in retrospect, as a mystical experience. Blending together Orthodoxy and nationalism, Munteanu claimed to represent the new generation even as he advocated a modernised version of the Legionary Movement that imitated Codreanu.
For their part, the veterans considered Munteanu a radical, and yet somehow welcomed him. It took part in the elections ofand functioned until at least Munteanu then became spokesman for the National Conference of Romanian Employers, an important position. Nevertheless, he was considering a political comeback as late as At presenthe runs a nationalist blog41 and is an associate professor of Ethnology at the University of Bucharest.
It became a common organisational unit for neo-Legionaries. This model, which was originally developed by Codreanu and inspired by military and monastic forms of organisation, has also been adopted by other European ultra- nationalists.
Each nest is made up of 3 to 13 members, who are grouped according to age and gender. The most important groups are nests for men above 22 years of age. Devaf. The nest is a local, territorial unit, similar to a military organisation, and it is organised at the district judeţ and regional levels. Ranks within the nest are achieved by merit.
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Nest members can recruit new Legionaries and create their own nest, and each group of nests comprises a nest family. Several other nest families existed during the late s. The atmosphere must therefore be solemn in a friendly way, dominated by brotherly love and absolute loyalty.
The six fundamental nest laws are discipline, labour, silence, education, mutual aid and honour.
The process of educating New Men starts as soon as a new member enters the Legion. He is a man of honour and great qualities, a man of action. A Christian cannot lie, steal, or kill. Carticica şefului de cuib, Act.
Meetings are generally replete with obvious references to Orthodox liturgy. May God help us. Still, since nest membership requires a high degree of activity, the older generation tend to engage themselves in different associations and foundations. According to their prominent titles, at least, many of these elderly Legionaries once held high positions in Romanian academia.
The education process prodague suisse anti aging work camps, especially in the summer.
At these camps, neo-Legionaries often work on village drainage systems or repair roads and bridges. The most common type of work, however, is the restoration of monasteries. This restoration work has won neo-Legionaries the goodwill of many clerics.
Commemorations and pilgrimages The cult of the dead has always been central to Legionary doctrine and rituals. Legionaries who die for the nation are considered martyrs and their spirits are invoked at nest meetings, memorials and conferences. Many neo-Legionaries believe that fallen comrades achieve immortality.
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These memorials look like traditional Romanian wooden carved crosses with little roofs over them. They are distinguishable from non-Legionary crosses by the grid in the middle, the symbol of the Iron Guard. Neo-Legionary groups often arrange conferences, exhibitions, memorial services, pilgrimages and religious ceremonies on such occasions. A premise of neo-Legionary belief is the idea that blood shed for the Fatherland sanctifies the soil. One pilgrimage site is Majadahonda, outside Madrid, where the Legionaries Moţa and Marin fell in as they were fighting communists during the Spanish Civil War.
In Romania, neo-Legionary pilgrimages normally take the form of marches, sometimes at midnight. Marchers proudly display Romanian flags and Iron Guard banners while singing Legionary songs.
They are frequently accompanied by Orthodox priests, who perform memorial services for the dead. One recurring example of a neo-Legionary pilgrimage is the annual march to the Tâncăbeşti forest near Bucharest where the Captain was killed in This event takes place on 30 November each year. The ceremony includes a 20 km march accompanied by Prodague suisse anti aging songs and banners. At the end of the march, a memorial service is held.
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In terms of liturgy, prodague suisse anti aging hardly deviate from ordinary Orthodox masses for the dead. Ilie Gorgani on 13 September Others have been caused by questions about the legitimacy of authority, the right to the Legionary tradition and even the proper Legionary dress code.
In spite of their bickering, however, the competing groups continue to use the same uniquely Legionary points of reference. He says that Sima brought anarchy and evil to the Legionary movement and was even responsible for the assassination of Codreanu and the rest of the Legionary elite.
In all of this work, they have been united by a common enemy: Şerban Suru.
None of the other groups recognise Suru or his group, however. Suru apparently provoked the veterans at this juncture, who saw him as too young, stubborn and disrespectful of their authority. His adversaries, by contrast, interpret this as an attempt to bring the movement into disrepute. Ionescu interprets their disagreement as ideological.
In his opinion, Suru focuses on superficial issues and neglects the spiritual and Christian dimension of Legionarism. Ionescu says his own nest, in contrast, embodies this religious dimension of the movement. Spreading the Message Conferences Conferences organized in connection with Legionary red-letter days are used produse anti-imbatranire pentru ten gras hghg neo-Legionaries as an opportunity to recruit new members.
Potential sympathisers who attend these events are handed flyers that present neo-Legionary principles, visions, slogans or poetry.