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An alternate definition is "the study of the biological and physical manifestations of disease as they correlate with the underlying abnormalities and physiological disturbances. Why pathophysiology is important for medical students and physicians? It helps them to find answers to important questions related to reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire processes: What is the cause of the disease, and why the disease is developing What are the mechanisms responsible for disease onset and progression What are the mechanisms resposible for development of symptoms and signs of disease.

If doctors are able to undetstand the causes and mechanisms of the disease, then they are able to treat them rationally. Pathophysiology is devoted to study of protective and defensive mechanisms of body tissue, organs and systems, and their role in defence against noxas, in pathogenesis of disease, and in sanogenesis. Pathophysiology creates a bridge between subjects of sciences and clinical subjects.

Thanks to pathophysiology the medical student can understand the inner logic of the pathological processes, their relationships, and their biological significance. Sir William Osler expresses particularly well the relation between the basic sciences and clinical medicine.

Indeed, ever since the Middle Ages, wise physicians and others concerned with the sick and their care have realized that most human disease may be understood in a real sense as disordered physiology pathophysiology.

Something eg, a mutation in a gene or invasion by a bacterial organism triggers an illness, and the body reacts with molecular, cellular, and systemic responses that are the symptoms and signs of the disease. Therefore, with 1 4 proper knowledge of normal structure and function, and the ways in which these can become disordered, comes the ability to understand ser gel crema pentru ochi antirid de casă and to design rational and effective treatment.

In addition, of course, the relation between pathophysiology and disease is a two-way street. Diseases may be viewed as experiments of nature that may uncover previously unknown or unappreciated physiologic mechanisms, and the investigation of these physiologic mechanisms in normal individuals advances our fundamental biomedical knowledge.

Therefore, it is important that students understand normal structure and function, and how they can become disordered, and apply this knowledge to disease. This field of study is not merely academic.

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Knowing the way in which a disease progresses can allow a medical professional to predict the next stage of a disease, providing appropriate care to the patient. Understanding the ways in which diseases can be treated is also critical, as doctors must choose the best procedures and medications for their patients.

Pathophysiology can also be important in end of life care, as healthcare professionals can recognize the signs that a patient is close to the end of his or her life, and they can provide the care needed to keep the patient comfortable.

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One of the major issues in this discipline is that every human body is different. What may be normal in one person could be abnormal in another, and diseases will not always behave in exactly the same way.

For this reason, it is critical for people in this field to be exposed to a diversity of patients and disease manifestations, so that they see real-world examples of physiological and pathological differences.

Failure to be exposed to diversity in medical education can be dangerous for doctors and patients, as it may lead to a missed or erroneous diagnosis. The contents of this book, either reviews or research papers, made by professionals in various fields of medicine, proves the immense importance of pathophysiology as well as its deep involvement in all aspects of medicine.

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Therefore we hope that it will become an invaluable tool in the hands of students, young doctors and specialists in all fields of medicine.

Grigore T. Popa Iaşi Prestigious professor, eminent mentor, valuable scholar and highly cultured person, Acad. Niţulescu was over two decades Head of the Department of Pathophysiology and one of the most loved and appreciated members of the teaching staff in Iasi, having set his reputation both at home and abroad. Iulius Niţulescu was born in in Piatra Neamţ.

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Young Iulius Niţulescu has been formed within a selected cultural medium with a deep respect for work. His father, Ion Niţulescu-Bistriceanu, was a distinguished and learned physician, one of the first doctors trained by Romanian medical school. He attended high school at "Gheorghe Rosca Codreanu" in Barlad, then from tohe pursued the courses of the Faculty of Medicine of Iaşi.

Iulius Niţulescu graduated from the School of Medicine of Iasi in as valedictorian and was kept since to teach there. He was simultaneously an intern and secondary physician of the St. Spiridon Hospital. Destiny wanted him since the first anatomy lesson to be overwhelmed by the fascinating personality of Professor Fr. Since then he understood and repeated it all his life: medical education is not possible without a scientific education.

He confessed that from the earliest years of study he read the famous "Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" by Claude Bernard, which captured and directed his concerns, we might say.

Rainer's influence was manifested in channeling his concerns for general pathology and experimental medicine, interest boosted by Professors C. Parhon, M. Ciuc and Grigore T.

From to he held a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship, specializing in diet and nutrition.

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McCollum, scholar of international reputation, strongly marked the directions of the future activity of Prof. A strong bond of mutual respect and appreciation connected master and disciple, which lasted a lifetime. For shorter periods of time he worked in laboratories of Professors O. Folin, F. Benedict, E. He studied in the social environment in the State of reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire 6 Mississippi epidemiology and treatment of pellagra.

He worked at a marine biology lab in Woodshole under Reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire L. Michaelis and R. Amberson and before his return to the country, followed a course of clinical cardiology provided by the service of Professor Laubry in Paris. The contact with such varied fields, illustrated by leading figures of that time, together with his special native qualities, formed the complex personality of a professor, scientist and scholar.

Niţulescu can be considered among the first promoters of prolific ideas on the importance of genetics study on medicine. Since he addressed the issue of biochemical bases of heredity and foresaw the importance of biochemical lesions in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases.

For him, physiopathology is not the explanation of functional disorders, but the understanding of the mechanisms of disorder onset and evolution and should also include the biochemical stage. He wrote numerous courses and textbooks for students. The first course of "General Pathology" in our country was published in in Iaşi. Considered an international authority on the issue of pellagra and vitamins, he was invited in to the French Medical Association Congress, held in Marseille, where his report on the etiopathogenesis pellagra was particularly appreciated.

On this occasion he stated that pellagra is not only a simple or multiple PP avitaminosis, and that therapeutic effects of PP vitamin are due to its pharmacodynamic properties. He proposed that vitamins should used in higher doses than normal body needs, thus inventing the term "Vitamin Medicines", just to emphasize their nonspecific actions. In 4 7he chaired the International Conference on Vitaminology, which he organized in Iaşi.

He was one of the first persons in the country - inspired by his master Reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire - who understood the importance and necessity of rational diet. One of the main directions of his research activity was the issue of rural nutrition and its deficiency diseases. A constant concern was the study of glycemic homeostasis and diabetes. The interest in these issues started immediately after the discovery of insulin in a report that included then, inan impressive bibliography.

Personal research results, as those of other authors on thermoregulation or tensional homeostasis, led him to issue an interesting idea, namely the concept of "pathological homeostasis". During the disease process, by altering one or more important biochemical-functional reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire, new correlative relationships different from normal are created and kept within certain limits which make up for "pathological homeostasis", a premise for the return to the state of "physiological homeostasis".

The series of research on the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative cardiovascular lesions revealed a very important fact, namely that minimal vascular lesions caused by various processes hypervitaminosis D, myocardosis by the Selye method may also evolve after their action ceases.

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He obtained extensive experimental cardiovascular injuries and hypothesized "that certain injuries, once initiated, can cause the deviation of metabolic chains whose normality shall never be restored, like the irreversible shift of a railway switch changing the direction of trains. Niţulescu was a representative of the Romanian medical science and education at numerous international congresses and conferences. In he was appointed tenured professor at the Department of General Pathology and Experimental Medicine of Faculty of Medicine of Iasi, position which he led until Taking the chair inanteceded by the prestigious Professors such as Th.

Filipescu, C. Tiron, C. Ionescu Mihaiesi, I. Nicolau, Acad. Niţulescu conducted an extensive activity. Niţulescu conducted works in the clinic related to nutritional issues and over research and trial studies published or presented at international congresses.

Known and appreciated as a prestigious medical scientific authority, both in our country and abroad, he was chosen since its establishment in as a corresponding member of Romanian Academy and full member in In he was elected honorary member of the Academy of Medical Sciences. In this capacity, with tact and perseverance, he managed to polarize the most valuable doctors around the activity of the Institute.

Under his leadership valuable studies of physiology, pathophysiology, cardiology, biology were published in Iaşi Branch of the Academy, the Medical Series and in the Medical-Surgical Journal Iasi, which allowed for a better understanding of the Iaşi School of Medicine, both in the country and abroad.

In our medical history, Iulius Niţulescu engraved his name, firmly, remarkably, by the school and work he created that posthumously maintain their full value.

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Niţulescu was not only the symbol of the scientist, holder of vast knowledge and experience in research and teaching, he also was a man of exemplary humanism, selflessness, appreciated by students and collaborators. Few know that Iulius Niţulescu was highly skilled as a medical practitioner, before being a professor. As a young doctor, during the dreadful years of World War I, worked with a doctor that he considered "the greatest clinician and the most perfect man I've known," the doctor and poet Vasile Voiculescu, head of the Exanthematic Hospital Bîrlad from to Together with the doctor and poet Vasile Voiculescu, they both slept in bed with exanthematic patients in order to demolish other physicians natural fear against the idea of contagion.

In World War II, he protested openly in Roman station against the inhumane transport Jews with the "death train" who would have been transported to sure death, were it not for his worthy intervention. One historian has discovered and published ina transcript from the archive of Marshal Antonescu, where he intervened vigorously protecting that brave Captain Iulius Niţulescu. Julius Niţulescu, this must be stressed, was a courageous man in many of life's circumstances.

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He left a clinic, where he worked as a Senior Lecturer, disappointed by the business relationship doctor-patient, which was totally unlike him. He had the courage to choose his partners and to promote them ignoring a certain "political line".

He has that supreme courage of not assuming any ideology that contradicted his own 6 9 beliefs and the wisdom to preserve his purity and honesty which were organically part of him.

Apparently withdrawn, perhaps even shy, of an exemplary modesty, Iulius Niţulescu could be sometimes considered introverted, austere and a lonesome person. Niţulescu wrote poems showing his great sensitivity, made translations of poems from world literature, considered by competent critics worthy to be published.

Fond of poetry, Iulius Niţulescu was spiritually formed admiring three great poets he met in Bîrlad: Alexandru Vlahuţă, Vasile Voiculescu and George Tutoveanu, the latter being the founder of the "Academia Bîrladeana" Literary Society During the 1 st World War, when he was a young medical student and worked at a hospital for communicating diseases, located in "St.

George" Primary School in Bîrlad under the leadership of Major Physician Vasile VoiculescuIulius Niţulescu often went together with his brother to literary meetings that were held in the beautiful home of drawing teacher Eugen Bulbuc. Niţulescu brothers formed a "trio" with Victor Ion Popa.

As a true archivist, Professor Niţulescu numbered and packed a series of folders containing the cultural heritage that he bestowed upon his followers, handing them to Iaşi Branch of the Romanian Academy: collections of old words, quotations, reader s scraps, translations of Baudelaire, Verlaine, Guyau, Prudhomme, Heredia, Regnier, Heine, Pushkin, Krilev. The folders also contain translations in French and English of Eminescu s and St.

Iosif s poetry. Nicolau, and in another folder there are texts for the reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire of Schumann and Enescu. The presence of these texts should not surprise us because the professor's wife, Florica Acontz-Niţulescu, was a distinguished professor of piano at the Conservatory of Iasi and her sister - Nutzi Acontz - was one of the most renowned representatives of the Iaşi painting in the between-war period.

Unfortunately, this precious archive has been studied very little, so far. One of the researchers was master Aurel Leon. Great admirer of the illustrious professor, Aurel Leon immortalized him by introducing him as a character in the novel "Blazon Landau", portraying him as a medical student, bookish and withdrawn, who lived on Sararie Street.


Although he was forced to interrupt his literary activity, medical concerns leaving him insufficient time for it, he always remained close to poets, artists, musicians.

Niţulescu tells us that "no other profession requires such a complex soul as medicine. A doctor s soul multilateralism is a condition that allows him to love and understand the world around him and by this understanding, to help the ill.

Concluding on these issues, I. Niţulescu says, "if scientific progress brings about the cancelling of old mystical interpretations of the world, it does not mean that it extinguishes the reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire aspirations of the human soul, which never ceases enjoying beauty, aspiring to wisdom, righteousness, love for mankind, all the qualities which are the essence of humanity".

However many discoveries are done, no matter how much equipment would be invented and no matter how sophisticated would it be, there is no antagonistic relationship between science, technology and humanity.

The conclusion drawn from 7 10 the scientific and journalistic activity of I. Niţulescu is that science cannot develop in the absence of human ideals, nor humanism in its broadest sense cannot be conceived today without a scientific basis.

Man of the city par excellence, Moldavian reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire attached to Iasi and its traditions, prof. Niţulescu was never seduced by the lure of bright situations and remained attached to the school to which he belonged, giving it everything. For the history of contemporary medicine, Julius Niţulescu remains, however, not only a great teacher, a doctor with original thought, but also an eminent scholar and researcher.

Having a deep rich soul, Acad. Niţulescu knew how to give everything: science, skill and soul, without preconceived intentions and without expecting anything in return. He was continuously striving towards perfection, which constantly and inevitably spilled out. He knew how to grasp and turn to the best account the scientific and social achievements of his time.

Endowed with a comprehensive spirit, with experience and talent, he was loyal, generous and cultivated generosity.

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He was sympathetic and righteous, lacking sectarian feelings, dogmatic or passionate judgments. He stimulated the courage of keeping one's view, criticism and was always ready to learn from others. Endowed with a power of discernment and scientific curiosity rarely met, with a sharp wit researcher spirit, with a reactant limitator cu 2 produse anti-imbatranire ease of grasping and interpreting studied facts and phenomena, qualities that stemmed from a vast pool of knowledge in various fields, Acad.

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Niţulescu became synonymous with the man of science and culture, the scholar, the profound connoisseur of various fields of science. Once academician Iulius Niţulescu repeated bitterly the statement: "A man dies three times: once in retirement, second at his physical death and third at his disappearance out of his fellows memory.

In this respect Acad.

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