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Pandurisector 5, Bucureşti Tel. Manolescu, Zoia coord. Gurgu, Mălina coord. Maftei-Golopenţia, Elena coord. Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication.

The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Similitudes y diferentes de lenguas latinas europeas a comienzos del siglo XXI It is the creative drive that has never been lost in people and site de tuning suisse anti aging in all fields implies not only new creations but also a diversity of ideas, approaches and methods, which should be disseminated.

This is what the present volume is about.

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We gathered here research papers from the conference on Professional Communication and Academic Discourse in the Global Context of Multilingualism, held at the Technical University of Civil Engineering and organized by the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication on June 12, Swiss alcp anti-imbatranire International Conference welcomed researchers from Romania and from different countries around the world providing opportunities not only to discuss on various research topics but also to create and tighten academic bonds between institutions.

As organizers of this event we would like to thank all the participants for the opportunity that was offered to us to have in one-place academic colleagues and friends that enabled a wealth of new knowledge and expertise to be shared, making the conference a memorable event.

Nowadays, telecommunications are tremendously important and certain applications belonging to this field need some synthetic tools such ICS Manager Software — a database which proves to be not only a useful tool, but also an essential one, for all the activities concerning radio spectrum. For these activities, engineers employ the ICS Manager Software which is quite accessible for the majority of those who are in charge with radio spectrum administration.

Localizing this software is not an easy task and requires lots of adaptation processes and explanations for many specialized concepts using an encoded terminology. The present article introduces the main aspects of localization and proposes a short variant of how the Software ICS Manager could be localized into Romanian. Keywords: radio spectrum administration; internationalization; translation difficulties.

This software along with ITU Radio Regulations may be seen as important reference tools for every employee in radio spectrum management. The use of the software application involves an appropriate understanding of the radio communication terminology. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show that the equivalence in localization is significant since a device has only one function and a misinterpretation of a term may produce confusions in using a function of the software.

Theoretical background Regarding the theory of localization, Anthony Pym argues that usually, only some parts from a software menu have been localized and some others have been not.

In the writing process of this paper, we have encountered the same 10 situation because there were only few strings localized into French and Spanish making the present research a new one. In translation, the features of skoposthoerie are the following: 1. Translation must be focused on semantic features topic, text content and meaning structureas well as on elements of form syntax, morphology, vocabulary and style. Site de tuning suisse anti aging target reader group is important, as well as the type of message that is sent to them and the effect that the translation will have upon them.

The translator needs to analyze the text, then to devise a strategy for its translation according to the purpose of the target text, in full agreement with the text type concerned. Ardelean, In our study, localization is focused on semantic features specific for the field to which the software is addressed.

I was shocked by the title because any kind of medicine traditional, modern, natural medicine, bioenergy, etc. Not wanting to keep in the dental office in which we practice evidence-based medicine a book containing phantasmagorical ideas, I decided to throw it to waste paper. Incidentally before I opened the book to page in which it was written about dentistry and not in a page but in over In these conditions, I took it home to browse the specialized chapter. After reading the chapter on dentistry and after I went on Wikipedia to check who the author is I was terrified and I decided to write this article.

Sometimes, common concepts are adapted in order to describe new meanings in science and technology and that may create dreadful confusions for the linguist accustomed with the common language, but not with the new technical terminology. Should it be the lack of time for thinking or the lack of communication among specialists from the different fields linguists and telecom engineers for causing mistranslations or bad translations or even translations that are in a total disagreement with the specificity of our mother tongue?

The answer to this issue is given by the theory of localization explaining that we have to take a product and tailor it to an individual local market i.

In an attempt to successfully localize software, we need a typical localization team which includes apart from the translator, the customer, the contact person, the in-country reviewer, the technical expert, the localization project manager, the engineers, the desktop publisher and quality assurance specialists.

The program is developed with an intuitive and user friendly graphic user interface GUI. Installing the client part of the application on PC is rather simple without requiring advanced knowledge in database or programming.

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An important step in implementation is the migration of the actual database to the new system by keeping database existing structure. Another significant step in implementation is adapting and customization of the application to the specific requirements for each customer. Prerequisites The purpose of this software is to be worked with; therefore, the producers of this software identify the necessities of the customers.

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The application contains a function for language shifting Fig. In IT terms, the producer facilitates the text localization messages, menus, and devices by simply creating a crema antirid facuta in casa cu ulei de cocos file with the message in English and the blanks to be filled in for each equivalent in the required language as in Fig.

General description of the ICS Manager software as a platform for radio spectrum administration This integrated IT structure for radio spectrum administration consists in the main application: a database system and spectrum administration application client part.

ICS Manager represents the global platform where the operators access the database and keep the evidence of different processes administered by the regulator licenses, fees, coordination, notifications and so on and so forth. Each department may have a particularized access to this system for radio spectrum administration with different menu configurations and different rights for accessing the tables with databases for different profile users.

The database of the system contains the national databases for radio spectrum administration which includes: stations, equipment, antennas, and allotments of radio frequencies or channels, reports, invoices, fees as well as the digital maps. This database is populated through a semi-automat process from the already existing database the customer has. This process requires an active participation from the customer.

For that reason, the clients distributed in this way can exist in different physical locations. Secondly, the Front Office application is an included package installed on the web server.

It uses a local mirror database in order to isolate the master database from the internet. A firewall is necessary with the intention of protecting the web server, the database and the application server from potential intrusions or hacking. The Front Office application has its own database application forms, the confirmation or information results.

Next, there is a list of some strings some site de tuning suisse anti aging easy to be translated others required revision from the specialists as already mentioned that have been partially localized as for the whole document the localization have not been done yet.

For the Latin string omni, a Romanian translation has been added because the term is usually used as a prefix whereas in this context, it is a string by itself. Retrieved on Yet, software has many localized versions and its localization remains a constant challenge especially for translators. Current attempts to apply these principles showed 2 It is a function used in converting data.

Regardless of this fact, software translation is sometimes discredited by developers and during the process of translation many translators give up this endeavor thinking that this job may be done after the application is completed and, the customers are familiar with this kind of software and there is no need for the product to be localized as long as it is purchased anyway.

Bibliography Academia Română. București: Editura Agir. Academia Română. Ardelean, Carmen.

60 + international and local speakers

Exploring Translation Studies. București: Conspress. ATDI Website. ATDIvideos's channel. New York: ACM: HCM Vereinbarung Website. International Electrotechnical Commission. Radio Regulations.

Editions of Larus, James R. IEEE Software 21 3 : Star Temperatures. This paper aims at viewing literature for children in the light of a number of modern translation theories based on interdisciplinariness and multiperspectivism the prototype theory, the polysystem theory, the skopos theory, the corpus-based translation theory and the audiovisual theory.

In terms of translation models, we shall focus upon the analogue models and the functionalist interactive models offering the translators of literature for children equal status with authors, editors or clients and entrusting them to make the most appropriate decisions in the elaborate translation process which involves cross-cultural communication. Keywords: prototype, polysystem, skopos, corpus-based theory, audiovisual theory, functionalist interactive model 1.

Unity and translation guidelines are imperiously needed especially since CL is a heterogeneous field ranging from picture books to novels for teenagers, covering various types of discourse and addressing readers of different ages and with various interests and preferences.

Modern translation theories are characterised by interdisciplinariness and multiple perspectives hence they are relevant to our present concern. Superordinate is the highest level of inclusiveness and abstraction, basic-level is one level below and subordinate is the lowest level of inclusiveness and abstraction e.

Following Rosch, Lakoff explains that most of our world knowledge is organised at the basic-level since this is the level at which one uses the shortest description for an object and terms at this level are most commonly used by people.

Development Lead - Endava About Laurentiu Laurentiu is an energetic developer, technical lead and passionate trainer, always in touch with the new technologies. He takes every opportunity to learn more and to share his knowledge.

On the other hand, Vîlceanu 25 considers that the semantics of the prototype is in fact a referential mode much more flexible than the classical model of the necessary and sufficient conditions. The superordinate is one level of abstraction above the basic-level and the categories included here share only a few attributes with each other whereas the subordinate is one level of abstraction below the basic-level and its 20 categories share most of their attributes with each other, many of which overlap with other categories.

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Children usually learn new words by including them in one category or another. Picture dictionaries might be organised according to site de tuning suisse anti aging criterion. Another interesting aspect about these categories is that most of them, if not all, do not have clear-cut boundaries. As a consequence, if different cultures have different judgements of degree of prototypicality for different reasons then translating literature for children would mean substituting a particular prototype of the SL with another prototype in the TL.

Machiaj marin anti-îmbătrânire skintimes colagen instance of domestication, oprah crema antirid technique will help children form an idea of prototypes in their own culture or at older age just recognise the prototypes in their culture.

On the other hand, translators might choose to preserve the prototypes in the TL if their intention is to introduce the young readers to prototypes in other languages and cultures.

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She considers that the outcome would be a peripheral position within the hierarchy of European literatures. Moreover, in these countries translated literature would become the main source of innovation. If when she refers to limited resources Thomson-Wohlgemuth has in mind the economic resources then she is right in assuming that this would be a reason for the peripheral position in the literary polysystem.

When it comes to literary tradition and to translated literature as the main source of innovation. The example of the Romanian literature is eloquent in this respect. In the s there was a true invasion of translated literature in Romania and Kogălniceanu, one of the Romanian leading figures of the literary movement of the time warned Romanian writers against the danger of translating mediocre works of foreign writers to the detriment of their national productions.

In his opinion, original autochthon literary works should exceed the number of translated books. Unfortunately, statistics in contemporary Romanian literature for children are again in favour of translations, especially from writers of English expression. On the other hand, translated literature might assume a secondary position and in this situation it represents a peripheral system within the polysystem, it has 22 no major influence over the central system and even becomes a conservative element, preserving conventional forms and conforming to the literary norms of the target system.

However, translated literature itself is stratified ibidem: Some translated literature may be secondary while others, translated from major source literatures, are primary. In addition, Even-Zohar ibidem: suggests that the position occupied by translated literature in the polysystem conditions the translation strategy. If it is primary, translators do not feel constrained to follow target literature models and are more prepared to break conventions.

They thus often produce a TT that is a close match in terms of adequacy, reproducing the textual relations of the ST. This in itself may then lead to new SL studii anti-imbatranire cu melatonina. Irrespective of its primary or peripheral position, translated literature for children preserves its dynamic character requiring a continuous adjustment of the translation strategies in accordance with its integration in the literary polysystem.

The situation described by Tabbert was in fact similar in other totalitarian regimes. She also suggests that the internal stratification of the fields according to differential status may equally play a role in determining the degree of change in translations of literature for children and contends that site de tuning suisse anti aging is some evidence that low status texts are adapted more than high status texts ibidem: The merit of the polysystem theorists is to have shown that translation represents a creative process which involves the original adaptation of the ST to the TC.

Every translation is directed at an intended audience, since to translate means to produce a text in a target setting for a target purpose and target addressees in target circumstances. The translator has to consider a double addressee the child and the adult and consequently choose 24 the educational, appropriate.

Colagen lumina rosie anti imbatranire pat terapie skopos theory expands the possibilities of translation, increases the range of possible translation strategies and releases the translator from the corset of an enforced literalness. Intentional and unintentional changes affect the entire translation process. Unintentional changes may arise from the different language structures as well as from differences in translating competence.

Intentional changes frequently occur in translating, if the aims pursued in the translation are site de tuning suisse anti aging site de tuning suisse anti aging those of the original.

As far as intentional changes with a negative impact are concerned, CLT has been under the influence of ideology which lead to manipulation and censorship in the countries of the totalitarian regimes. The first consists in trying to adapt the text in order to satisfy the socio-cultural expectations prevailing in the TC, expectations related to what is regarded as pedagogically and morally appropriate and useful for children.

These two principles affect the different stages of the translation process and determine the acceptance and the affiliation of a text to the TC. They both coexist and should be integrated in the guideline of a translator of literature for children. The skopos theory has been criticised and objections mainly concern the definition of translation and the relationship between ST and TT. Vermeer himself brings arguments against these objections.

In his opinion, The notion of skopos site de tuning suisse anti aging in fact be applied in three ways, site de tuning suisse anti aging thus have three senses: it may refer to a. Another objection would be 25 that not every translation can be assigned a purpose or an intention.

Specific goals, functions and intentions do not restrict the translation possibilities or limit the range of interpretations of the TT in comparison to that of the ST.