The phenomenon can be explained by the presence of some factors whose cumulative effects contribute.
This explains why almost half of the studied territory is suitable to fruit trees cultivation. Irimuş, I.
Tehnici de cartografiere, monitoring şi analiza GIS. Mac, I. Morariu, T. Academiei, Bucureşti.
Pop, Gr. Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj - Napoca. Savu, Al. Sorocovschi, V. Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, Bucureşti.
The Oaş Mountains, part of their Northern group, represent a very complex geologic and geomorphologic area, with a polycyclic magmatism, with a large variety of volcanic structures intrusive bodies, effusive volcanic forms with central eruption, volcanic cupolas, isolated volcanic bodies, plateaus, calderas etc.
The geomorphologic environmental states display on a large specter: temporality states relicts, inherited, actual, of aggradation etc. Keywords: environmental geomorphology, palimpsestic character, increased sensitivity, induced dysfunctions.
Avene ystheal ochi Oaş Mountains present a palimpsestic character within which the volcanic structures and forms reveal successions of morphostructures on different evolution stages, with increased sensitivity induced by the mass and energy inputs into the system polycyclic volcanism, marginal subsidences, pluvio-denudational, fluvial or human-induced stress.
The specific nature of the structural and functional relations between the different involved elements volcanic — sedimentary, permeabil — impermeabil, biotic — abiotic, natural — artificial determined an increase in vulnerability. The development of a human-made environment mining, agricultural, habitational is a constant telepherique urbane suisse anti aging the Oaş Mountains geographic landscape.
Within the Northern group of the Eastern Carpathians, the morphostructural volcanic unit includes three distinct subdivisions: Oaş Mountains, Gutâi Massif and Toroiaga-łibleş Mountains. MAC, N. Towards West and Southwest, because of the interference of the volcanic structures with the Western Plain sedimentary ones, the bounder follows a sinuous course along, the hummocks and the volcanic ridges alternating with gulf depressions.
However, the line linking the localities Seini, Medieş-Vii, Turlung-Vii şi Halmeu-Vii may be considered as the limit between the two tectono-structural units. The volcanic structures cover around km 2among which 97 km 2 represent lava flows, 41 km 2 rooted bodies and 40 km 2 pyroclastic accumulations.
HODOR, MARIA HOSU f low altitude maximum m in Piatra Vişcului peak and minimum m at the contact with Someş Plain ; g increased geomorphologic complexity due to the geologic background features; h aggressive modeling through differential erosion, fostered by the structural and petrographic variations; i closeness to the regional base level Tisa Valley that encouraged an accelerated regressive erosion; j the possible development of the modeling processes on more temporal phases, if considering the Mio-pliocene age of this volcanic unit; k the significant human impact upon the natural components.
Mac, A state is defined as a way in which a system develops in time and space under the impulse or motion of input and output variables. In the case of the Oaş environmental volcanic system, the environmental states compose a large specter, a differentiation being possible on criteria as location, geologic-geomorphologic features and, in subsidiary, hydro-atmospheric factors and the biotic component especially the phytomass. The most explicit example in this respect is provided by the glacises developed at the base of the volcanic structures.
Although they are intermediate landforms between the volcanic structures cones, plateaus etc. At least two accumulation series with eterogene petrographic structure were identified, probably corresponding to two morphoclimatic cycles Pliocene — Pleistocene and Holocene. If considering the longitudinal profile between the volcanic structures and the river channels, more structural sequences can be distinguished: proximate rough deluvial deposits, made especially of debris; composite diluvia debris and fine materials ; terminal diluvia, made of fine materials only loam-sandy.
The evolution of these forms is ascendant and they continuously grow against the structural slopes. Critical Environmental States Telepherique urbane suisse anti aging states got successively in, being determined by the conflicting geomorphologic rapports.
Some environmental areas are extremely explicit: TurŃ mining area, Certeze-Huta extraction pits, Călineşti limnic area. Within the context of the geospatial conflicts between the geomorphologic system and the external factors natural or socio-economic interventionsfragility states have set in. The main effect of this phenomenon is represented by the morphohydric substitution from floodplain to marsh.
Under such circumstances, the overgleisation process induces a decrease in the local pedologic potential. On some areas, soil was totally removed, so that the volcanic structures are completely denuded TârşolŃ Hummock, for example.
The territorial degradation stage with evident rhexystasic tendencies is achieved in a very short time interval. The Oaş Mountains distinguish by an increased geo-structural and morphologic variety and by landforms superpositions under the effect of the insertions of new structures into the old volcanic ones.
A main characteristic is represented by the increased relief fragmentation induced by the internal tectono-volcanic or external especially of fluvio-denudational type agents. Airinei, Şt. ŞtiinŃifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti. Borcoş, M.
Cooke, U. JGeomorphology in Environmental management. CoteŃ, P. Kovacs, M. IV, 2. Posea, Gr. Relieful vulcanic din RomâniaEdit. FundaŃiei România de Mâine, Bucureşti.
Rădulescu, D. Săndulescu, M. Schreiber, W. Seghedi, I. Szekely, A. Şileam, T. Mud volcanoes of the eastern and central part of the Transylvanian Depression have been studied by BányaiBartkó and Vancea who suggested several different classifications depending on their observations on the mud volcanoes.
The classification has been made from the point of view of morphology and the internal structure until the maximal depth of 8. We distinguish four types: gryphon, mud mound, mud crater and mud pool. Keywords: mud volcano, types, Transylvanian Depression, Romania.
They differ from the igneous volcanoes in genesis, discharged material, forms and activity, all being of much smaller amplitude. Nevertheless most of them emit constantly or periodically mud under the pressure of gas without eruptions. Mud volcanoes related to natural gas emissions are very widespread in the Transylvanian Depression.
They appear in different geologic, tectonic and topographic settings, having very diverse surface expressions. These very dynamic phenomena have been mentioned for the first time in Szabó, fide Wanek, and scientifically documented beginning with the 19 th century Binder, ; Andrae,etc.
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- geographia - Studia
Some of these have ceased their activity or have disappeared as a result of humane interference mostly the ones situated in populated areas. On the other hand some new mud volcanoes have been identified which have never been recorded before. In the eastern and central part of the Transylvanian Depression a telepherique urbane suisse anti aging number of 60 mud volcanoes have been identified and studied from 20 localities.
MINISTRY OF EDUCAT ION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
The manual shallow drillings provided not only the samples but useful information regarding the internal structure. Using this information, the drilling profiles have been drawn up leading to the establishment of a new classification. The following criteria have been taken into consideration in the new typology: external morphology, morphometric elements, internal structure, intensity of activity, characteristics of the discharged material, the presence of vegetation total, partial and lack of vegetation and if the mud volcano has appeared on a flat or sloping surface.
As far as the surface morphology is concerned, the shape of the mud volcanoes has been analyzed: flat, cone, truncated cone, dome, and the curve which describes the best the respective form. The outline curves have been drawn on the basis of the photographs and the morphometric information. Regarding the subsurface morphology, the form and dimensions of the feeding channel and the presence or lack of near-surface mud chambers have been examined.
Five intensity levels have been telepherique urbane suisse anti aging 1.
geographia - Studia
We propose to separate four types: gryphon, mud mound, mud crater and mud pool. Gryphon The term gryphon has been defined by Kopf as a small cone up to 3 m off the crest or on the flank of a large mud volcano. In this study the term gryphon is used in a similar meaning, with the difference that it will not denote a secondary feature the ramification of the main conduit but the mud volcano itself. Gryphons are represented by those positive mud volcanic features which result from the deposition of mudflows extruded through a narrow feeder channel on the preexisting topographic surface.
Depending on the viscosity of the material, the cone becomes higher and narrower or lower and wider.
If the emitted mud is very fluid the resulted cone will be very flat, reaching only a few centimeters above the surface.